Firearms: Operation And Explanations

This post is dedicated to anyone who likes weapons and interested in knowing a bit more about them; for those who do not conform with only photos and are curious to know their functioning and to compare them between if...
I will prioritize the comprehensibility of the text over the quality of drafting, by what you will see that I repeat many words, instead of using tacit subjects.
I also want to clarify that all material in the post is written by my. They won't find anything like on the web, explained this in detail and comprencible for all without being way too basic...
Many of the photos edit them to put names to the things and explain them.

Let's start once: portable firearm are composed of some fundamental parts that all interested in the topic should know, here named them and explained briefly that were dealt with.




KEY PIECES



HAND GRIP: It is the piece that serves to hold the weapon comfortably. In the case of small arms (as e.g. pistols or revolvers) is what grabs her hand, and weapons largas…también!, only that they also have a piece that serves basically the weapon to be support in the shooter's shoulder. This serves to give more stability.
The image shows a gun being wielded by the hand grip (forgive the repetition)

TAIL OF THE SHUTTER BUTTON: Sounds weird, but we all know that it is. It's just what newbies are referring to when they say "trigger", (technically incorrect term)

HAMMER: Is what knocks the needle fulminate (already we will see that it is, in this part I only named the pieces so that they have an idea.) Then we will see how they work and all the "because") which in turn hit the ammunition to detonate her.
All portable fire weapons have hammer: in some looks it at first glance (as e.g. in revolvers), while in others it is hidden and the shooter does not have access to the (as for example in the assault as the M-16 rifles)
In the photos we can see two types of hammer: the outstanding and pointed classic (first image) and the modern, rounded and short with hole in the middle (second and third photo).
I gave name to other core parts of guns, although I have not appointed them, is good to be vallan familiar if they like the topic...



AMMO: it is the set of shell, fulminante, gunpowder and projectile. What is commonly called "bullet". All these elements are obviously strongly associated (as it can be seen in the photos).
Gunpowder is the chemical that it (not explodes, it!) with the oxygen to generate the pressure behind the projectile forward.
The shell is the piece that joins all the others: inside of this this gunpowder, at the base the fulminante (which is what starts the combustion of gunpowder), the capsule (which is what contains the fulminante: when the needle fulminate hits it, the energy of the blow is transmitted directly to the fulminante), el yunque (which is a passive piece whose function is to distribute on the 'base' of the gunpowder generated by the fulminante "fire"); and in the end got pressure projectile, which ultimately is what travels through the air at very high speeds (a standard 5.56 x 45 assault rifle bullet can reach a speed of 900 m/s) and hits on the target.
At the same time, we will see that there are several types of projectiles and each of these are composed of several elements: depending on the desired effect to impact the target: expansive or penetrating. There are many types of expansive (more expensive and efficient or cheap, simple and inefficient) and various types of penetrantes…
The arsonists, tracer, explosives are used more than anything by not portable like e.g. firearm heavy machine guns.
IMAGES:
The first photo shows short weapon ammunition
In the second, a shot to short weapon ammunition
In the third, a longitudinal cut in a complete expansive ammunition, short weapon showing the fulminante, Cap, gunpowder and projectile
In the fourth, behind an already fired short weapon ammunition shell: note as the needle (aboyada) mark percusora in the capsule containing the fulminante.
In the fifth, a long gun ammunition.
In the sixth, a longitudinal cut in a long gun ammunition
In the seventh, equal to the previous cut



CANYON: It is the "" metal pipe inside which circulates the projectile. In some weapons is rifled (as seen in the photo) while in shotguns is smooth. The bore of the pipe is the inner side of this. The axis is the (imaginary) central axis of the barrel. The magazine well is the tip of the barrel, or face perpendicular to the axis on which the bullet travels.
Stretch marks are small longitudinal saliencias in the interior of the guns, used to accompany to the projectile as it emerges, forcing him to turn around its own axis (this movement is called "gyroscopic motion", and its usefulness is crucial to the external ballistics, then I am going to explain that it is).


BEDROOM: It is an extension of the Canyon. In fact the barrel and the bedroom it form a same piece solid and solid.
In the bedroom stays ready to be fired ammunition, it obviously is the tip of the barrel more close to the shooter. We will see that it is vital that this is a solid piece because it is who has to endure more pressure coming from the combustion of gunpowder.
Obviously the diameter of the bedroom is greater than the barrel, for the simple fact that the diameter of the ammunition is greater than the projectile (also going to explain this).
The first image shows a cannon from the brocal inward, where stretch marks are clearly appreciated.
The second image shows one bedroom pistol focused from "back", there is where the ammunition directly from the loader, waiting to be fired. Note the ramp (that is part of the same piece as the bedroom and the Canyon) so that does not lock the weapon when ammunition runs from the charger to the bedroom.

CLOSURE: Its main function is the "hold" the ammunition inside the bedroom at the time of being fired. Meaning that the ammunition this enclosed, seized on all sides by the bedroom and by the closure.

NEEDLE FULMINATE: It is what physically connects the hammer with the base of the bullet that is ready to be fired. It is a long "needle" that is inside the closure of most of the weapons.


PORTA-CIERRE: is a piece that works closely linked to the closure, is always wrapped around it or to the sides. They are physically separate, but linked in terms of the operation. This depends on each system, already are going to explain them well...
The joint closing / porta-cierre is what makes up the so-called bolt.


EPOXY FRAME OR DRAWER OF MECHANISMS: It is what is seen from the outside, the metal walls that contain all the pieces. When we say "this piece is supportive to the frame", means that this fixed, static compared to the rest of the moving parts. Or is that is welded to the frame or tightly gripped and without the possibility of movement.

SPRING RECUPERATOR: It is the main spring that always oppresses the bolt against the breech.


IMAGES:
In the first image we see a pattern of operation of assault rifle: in dark green the closure, in light green porta close, Rosa the needle fulminate, gray clear barrel and the bedroom, in yellow ammunition: a within the bedroom and another in the loader, in light blue the receiver, in red the recoil, in violet the Ratatouille and dark blue taken gas (already we will see that they are the two latest pieces that name)
In the second image we see "front" a closure of long gun is where apparent the nook where fits the ammunition to the closure "puts it in the bedroom", and inside this fulminate the needle.
In the third image, the scheme of operation of a conventional pistol with the names of the pieces.


TURN OFF FLAMES / COMPENSATOR: Is what is at the tip of some cannons (usually in assault weapons), then of the magazine well. It has two objectives: distribute the flares so not to go all "piles", so do not put in evidence the position of the shooter. This is very useful in the war! Another role is to guide part of the exhaust end (usually upwards) to absorb part of the recoil of the weapon.
IMAGES:
In all, we see different types of shut down flames / compensators. The first belongs to some modern version of the Ak-47 (possibly Ak-74) and is a funnel.
The second is the compensatory Flash suppressor of a rifle.
The third is surely the compensatory Flash suppressor of a FN (I am not sure!).





BASIC PRINCIPLE: AUTOMATIC WEAPONS:



Note: My name is "position more delayed" to the more close to the body of the shooter, and "position more advanced" to the more close to the tip of the barrel.
It is understood as automatic weapon one that allows to run several shots followed without recharging manually, because recharging is done automatically.
Examples of such weapons are pistols, revolvers, machine guns, assault rifles, the sub-fusiles and some shotguns. I.e., almost all the weapons used in the forces.

CONDITION INITIAL
Before the shot, the next to be detonated ammunition found inside of the bedroom, tight (locked) by the closure. The hammer is mounted, or in its position more delayed, separated from the needle fulminate, with its fully compressed spring; only locked by a mechanical part.
The needle fulminate is found naturally in its position more delayed (more far removed from the ammunition), with its uncompressed spring (just this spring which forces her to be in this position).
The bolt (both closed and porta close) extensively in his position more advanced (i.e. more close to the bedroom, in fact almost her touch).

THE FIRING SEQUENCE
When the shooter the tail of the shutter button, the movement is mechanically transferred to the piece that releases the hammer, leaving him free; and, by force of its spring, (that was before compressed), "drops" sharply. At the end of his tour struck with force the needle fulminate who is forced to go forward (forcing their own spring that always incites her to move away from the ammunition).
Finally the needle fulminate (which moves inside the bolt) struck with force ammunition initiating combustion.
The bullet leaves the barrel fueled by the gas. Then the bolt moves strongly back (compressing the recoil - his spring-), driven by the same gases (gases from the combustion of gunpowder on the one hand to push the projectile forward, and on the other hand pushing the bolt backwards!).
While the bolt back is going "opening" the bedroom, that is bolt is separated from this allowing Shell to fence back also out of the bedroom by the pressure of the gases.
On his way back, Cap "sticks" to the nail of expulsion (which is in the closure) and this encourages him out to the side through a hole that has the weapon in the receiver.
The bolt continues back by force of the gas, once again riding the hammer (because pushes it back, unless it makes stop and lock with the piece that is responsible for retaining it not back his spring-driven).
When the bolt is Cap (i.e. that already not can retreat more), the recoil is fully compressed, so this then drives back forward. In your route (return) drag a new ammunition, specifically which loader leaves further up (remember that in the magazine there is a spring that pushes the existing ammunition within, upwards.) But the only way to have these out is forward - the charger has a Cap. Why is that the bolt manages to "take one" on his return, forward movement).
The ammunition is pushed inward closure of the bedroom, being guided by the ramp which is a part of the bedroom. Without the ramp, you could lock and clog the mecanismo…
Once the bolt in place more advanced (or be with the spring recuperator uncompressed and pressing the ammunition to not leave of the bedroom) we are in the initial condition.
This process can be repeated indefinitely until all the ammunition loader is exhausted. Each process takes hundredths of a second. As you can see is simple, rather than the human has to manually reload in order to make each throw, as happens with the rifles to bolt, "pajeras" shotguns, rifles palanqueros (the distant West ja!) or the muzzle-loading weapons; all this is done automatically.
Where takes the energy to carry out this process? Of the pressure of the gases generated by the combustion of gunpowder. Or that the same chemical energy contained in the powder to "Lance" the projectile against the enemy, is making the recarga…
You can see this animation of firing in gun, this video showing the same and finally the assault rifle firing sequence.






link:



The process to explain is just very generic, and responds to all automatic weapons. Was no accident that I gave them examples in pistol and rifle; I did so that notice as my explanation for all cases is.





THE BIG PROBLEM...





Previously explained is a truthful but simplistic version of reality...
There is a problem that need to solve that shooter not die to execute every shot (haha).

Which is it?
He is that the projectile is millimeter more bulk than the inside of the barrel, so it travels to pressure through the interior of this, until that comes out of the weapon. So like a Cork in a bottle (the diameter of the Cork is greater than the peak of the bottle!).
For this reason, the metal of the shells is more soft than the interior of the barrel. Stretch marks "get" millimeter into the projectile scraping it because otherwise it could not leave the gun. As the stretch marks "" revolve"" within the Canyon (and I say "" revolve"" with many quotes, because obviously they are quiet, in fact are one piece with the barrel), the projectile as it goes through the Canyon is induced to turn also. Turns on its own axis in a so-called gyroscopic motion.

So is this movement?
By ballistic issues analyze them (physicists), gives more stability to the projectile during his trip to the target. Then if they want to tell them about this.
The times that are accidentally stuck projectiles in the middle of the cannon, because the gunpowder was failed; It is very difficult to get them because (as already explained before) they pass through the barrel "scraping" driven by the pressure of the gases. If the pressure of the gas is very low for failures, and the projectile is heavily jammed, it is very difficult to get out it!

Where do I want to get?
I would like to get to understand that the projectile is the stopper (as with a bottle of champagne) to prevent the pressure of the gases from escaping to the front (i.e. that it happens between the projectile and the inner walls of the Canyon.) (If you like the analogy of the bottles, tell them that champagne can not escape between the inner walls of the peak of the bottle and Cork!).

Where do I want to get?
I would like to reach to understand that at the moment of the shot and HASTA QUE EL PROJECTILE ABANDONA EL CAÑON unpacking the enormous pressure (the pressure inside the bottle of champagne also unzip newly when Cork removed completely!); in the bedroom there is very high temperatures, high pressure and all the bad things imaginable, ja!.

But I do not understand is where this problem?
The problem is that if the bedroom is opened immediately after have been shot, shell would no longer be contained by all sides (before it was contained by the walls of the bedroom and the bolt) and it would tend to leave.
Do you know what happens if a shell (with the brutal conditions of temperature and pressure) goes abroad without mechanical restraint that gives her bedroom and the bolt??
Dilation by the heat would be so sharp that it would tend to break down, and pressure so great that every piece of metal that was before the shell, would be dismissed as a granda of fragmentation to all sides, undoubtedly impacting the shooter.

And more?
The bolt would tend to go so strongly towards further delayed it was broken, as the spring flow recuperator is not ready to absorb such brutal force.

Do and because the shell is not broken before leaving for the bedroom?
Precisely because this content by it and the bolt, then not be can dilate as much as "to the would like to"

And then I do?
The solution is very simple, you have to open the bedroom to start the entire sequence of shot to explain before, once the bullet leaves the barrel of the gun and the pressure drop to tolerable levels, that they do not produce all of these problems.
This is called delayed opening of the bedroom (or acerrojamiento systems), and have it all automatic weapons!. There are several types, depending on the power of the ammunition, weapons, etc.


WHAT HAPPENS WITH THE SHOTGUNS?
Shotguns are weapons with smooth barrel, i.e. without stretch marks that do not trigger a single projectile which travels tight on the inside of the barrel, but that many shells chiquititos… And among them there is space for which gas escapes (or in shotguns being ignored entirely the "champagne Cork" effect).
For this reason is that the pressure in the bedroom and cannon at the time of the shot is not as big as in the rifles and other automatic weapons of fluted barrel. For this reason it is that cartridges for shotguns are plastic (formerly of cardboard) and non-metallic as other weapons drawn.
However should delay its opening of bedroom! Although it is not as critical as in the rifles, pistols, machine guns, etc.



Now you are those who I go to ask the system of the weapon that they like to know:
They are interested to know how an AK-47? I will explain to them
They are interested to know how an M-16? I will explain to them
You are interested to know the mechanism of the MP-5, the pistols glock, of the USP of borrowed of the automatic franchi shotguns of the uzi, colt 45, of the desert eagle, that of the AUG??
I WAS THE MEAN!
Do you want to speak them more in detail about some of the issues that touch, to explain them any particular case? What talk them of ballistic internal, external, overview and concepts of the armies for weapons??

They only have to ask me what, let me point and gladly I explain!