Learn How To Read And Write In BrailleThursday 26th of January 2012 12:50:18 AM
The read by touch, to slide your fingers over an alphabet especially designed for them.
The first known record of a similar system is the beginning of the 16th century, when a Spanish, Francisco Lucas, had the idea to record letters on wood.
A century later, a French notary named Pierre Moreau founded movable type of lead with the same goal. There were several similar attempts until that Haüy was able to record on paper a similar system.
When was 15 years old, the young Louis (1809-1852), who at tender age had become blind as a result of an accident, invented a system of and through touch consisting of points.
, a true alphabet, is read by moving the hand from left to right, going through each line. readers can read an average of 104 to 125 words per minute, although some can reach to read 250 words per minute using both hands.
The size and distribution of the 6 points which form the so-called generator sign is not a whim but fruit of the experience of . The nerve endings of the yolk of the toe are trained
Sign generator allows only 64 combinations of points, still insufficient for the variety of letters, symbols, and numbers of each language.
This limitation will require the invention of the so-called "double symbols". You attempted to use a symbol of 8 points (increasing considerably the number of possible combinations), but was too uncomfortable to .
Small black spots are the points of the generator sign which are not embossed, are drawn only for a better understanding of each symbol.
As-accented vowels can not place a tilde above the points corresponding to the vowels, they invented a new symbol for each one.
Symbols of punctuation-in punctuation (admiration, question mark, and quotation marks) are not different opening and closing symbols.
Double symbols.As discussed the six points of the generator sign they generate few symbols, we had to invent the 'double symbols' that give new meaning to the letter above. In such a way:
Uppercase (symbol twice)-preceded the sign of capital letters, capital letters are formed using the letters of the alphabet. For example:
Numbers (symbol twice)-the numerator sign preceded, the numbers are formed using the first letters of the alphabet, numbers from 1 to 10 from the letter 'a' letter 'j'. Examples of different numbers:
Here are examples of different numbers:
When numbers are fractional, the dynamics is the same, the only difference is in the numerator of the fraction that is formed with the symbols of punctuation. In effect:
It notes that this system allows a same symbol might have different meanings if you are alone or preceded by one of the double symbols.
Braille - view and touch
If we write 'LAFUENTE' with the points system that are not highlighted would be:
Actually you only notice the points that are in relief, both sight and touch, so that would be:
does not present excessive difficulty with respect to in ink. The basic elements in the procurement process are the same for the and blind.
Because it is a system lectoescritor that uses a different to the alphabetic code in ink, it requires a different learning.
by touch He is performed letter-by-letter and not by recognizing whole words, as in ink. Why it's a task slow initially, that requires great concentration difficult to achieve at an early age.
One cannot speak of two reading stages:
In the first, the index fingers must be used as readers, together begin each line. Arriving at the end of it is back on it. This receding and reaching half descends to the next line, completing the back until the beginning of this to start . It is the unimanual .
In a second phase, the movement of the hands is double, as each one reads about half of the line. Starts to read the first line with the index fingers of each hand together, and arriving at the half, right hand ends read the line, while the left hand down to the next line going backwards to the beginning of it. It is the bimanual
It is faster than and often present less difficulty.
A text in may be produced by hand or machine.
1 by hand.
Handwriting requires having a pattern or power strip, a punch and a role.
To write by hand it is necessary to take into account the following principles:
(a) so that the of what was written by hand can make normally from left to right, it is necessary to begin writing from right to left, reversing the numbering of the points of the box. Thus the inserted that makes the writing will be as a point in relief located in the right place when you return to the role.
(b) before you start agrees to acquire precision mechanically in the dotted by what you can do series of dots.
(c) all points must have an identical relief. To do so should acquire a big mechanical precision.
A machine for contains 6 keys, one for each of the points of the generator box of . It also has a spacer, a key for recoil and one for the change of line.
The model called the Perkins - Brailler, manufactured by the Perkins School of the Blinds in Massachusetts, USA, is the most commonlyemployee.
The keys you can press each separately either at the same time allowing to build the combination element a at once.
Each key must press a particular finger, so that the is performed with maximum speed and minimum effort, ensuring that the layout of the hands is more comfortable and efficient as possible.
The teaching of Braille
As any boy, the blind need have acquired a certain degree of maturing development in different areas in order to begin the basic skills of and .
Touch training has to be far superior to the of the child Seer, although both need to acquire concepts through their engine development, the blind, not only will have to use their fine motor skills to manage the tools for , but that touch will be their only source of information in the process of acquisition.
The child must acquire skills and concepts in the different areas of development for the initiation in literacy.
1 Motor skills.
2. Development senso - perceptive.
3. Development of memory, attention and observation.
Activities ofIntroduction to literacy in case of congenital or perinatal blindness.
Before the child directly during the of letters or words it is necessary that the spatial structure of the generator sign have interiorized, and that maturity digit - manual enable it to carry out a proper scan of two-dimensional space
To carry out exercises in this field is used the huevera is the container for packaging of half a dozen eggs and that constitutes a suitable material for the teaching of space of the cell, reproduce it accurately in a size that makes them especially attractive to children. The recipient must maintain position right at all times. The first exercises with the huevera Iran aimed at assimilating the spatial structure, exploring the provision of the six holes in the two columns of three. Using table tennis balls, marbles or pebbles can fill the gaps and configure various forms, first freely and then order.
The yellow Strip, the Strip's introduction to and preescritura slate are two instruments used in the preescritura . The yellow Strip is a medium of plastic and wood, in yellow which is home to a line of boxes of size large enough so the child can insert in them a few Brads without difficulty. The slate is a wooden board that contains several lines of boxes of sizesimilar to those contained in the yellow Strip.
Practice with the abacus Japanese evaluation of text
System of and in relief, invented in the nineteenth century by Frenchman Louis , is based on the combination of six spots arranged in two columns of three each, which can be perceived through touch. The six points whose combination gives sixty-four characters allow the of the letters of the alphabet, punctuation, numbers and signs matamáticos.
His requires a whiteboard and a punch; When applying the punch at each point from right to left, this is being marked in high relief, so as to take the role of the Board and turn it over, the points will be highlighted and can be read by touch.
and are fundamentally processes of meaning and not simple translation or copy of characters or signs. From this perspective as stated by Ferreiro, the Act of reading is not only visual, understand a text is a process that operates on the basis of the information alreadythe reader has. As for it's say something to someone, read and write operate and make sense in terms of communication. Here the question is not about but by what means read and write. It is configured in the school as a tool that allows access to the reading -, i.e. as the paradigm of truth and the gateway to the benefits of modern society such as labour, professional and cultural scientific advances that otherwise would not be available to blind people.
Once located in the school, began his journey as a tool of the reading -, assuming the formal structures of any teaching-learning process.